Diabetes mellitus (dm) is a disease that often occurs. This disease is often referred to as blood sugar disease because it is characterized by an increase in blood sugar (glucose) levels above normal. People with diabetes mellitus need to control blood sugar levels in their bodies immediately to avoid any complications.
But unfortunately, the symptoms of diabetes often appear gradually, so many people do not realize that they have contracted this disease. That is why for those of you who are at risk of diabetes, it is recommended to carry out regular checks. Come on, find out it’s possible to run tests to check for diabetes mellitus here.
Overview of diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus can occur because the body does not produce sufficient amounts of insulin or insulin does not function properly, which rises, in turn, blood sugar levels.
This disease has two main types, namely, type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes occurs because of an autoimmune condition, in which the sufferer’s immune system attacks and destroys the pancreatic cells that produce insulin. Meanwhile, type 2 diabetes is caused because the body’s cells are less sensitive to insulin, so the insulin production cannot use properly (resistance of the body’s cells to insulin). Type 2 diabetes is more common than type 1 diabetes.
Diabetes that does not properly control can cause serious complications, such as heart disease, kidney failure, blindness, amputation, and even death.
Checks for diabetes mellitus
A blood sugar test is a must-do test to diagnose type 1 or type 2 diabetes. By looking at the results of blood sugar measurements, it can see whether a person has diabetes or not. Doctors usually will advise people to undergo blood sugar tests at a certain time and with a certain method. The following are blood sugar test methods that people with diabetes mellitus can undergo:
On-time blood sugar test
The purpose of this test is to measure blood glucose levels at a certain time at random. To undergo this test, people do not need to fast first. If the blood sugar test results show a sugar level of 200 mg/dl or more, then the person can say to be positive for diabetes.
Fasting blood sugar test
Meanwhile, the fasting blood sugar test aims to measure the blood glucose levels of people in fasting conditions. To undergo this test, the person will ask to fast for 8 hours first. After that, a new blood sample will take to find out the blood sugar levels.
If the effects of the fasting blood sugar check display blood sugar ranges are less than one hundred mg/dl, then the blood sugar ranges are still ordinary. However, if the blood sugar test results are between 100-125 mg/dl, the person may have a disorder called prediabetes. Meanwhile, the results of a fasting blood sugar test of 126 mg/dl or more suggest that the person is positive for diabetes.
Glucose tolerance test
The sufferer also needs to fast first for one night to undergo this test. Then, the person will undergo a fasting blood sugar test measurement. After the test is complete, the person is getting to ask to drink a special sugar solution. Then, the blood sugar sample is getting to take again after 2 hours of drinking the sugar solution.
If the glucose tolerance test results are below 140 mg/dl, it means that the blood sugar levels are still normal. Meanwhile, the results of the glucose tolerance test between 140-199 mg/dl indicate prediabetes. A glucose tolerance test result with a sugar level of 200 mg/dl or more means that the person is positive for diabetes.
Hba1c test (glycated hemoglobin test)
This test aims to measure the average glucose level of the sufferer for the past 2–3 months. This test will measure the level of blood sugar that is bound to hemoglobin. The protein in red blood cells carries oxygen throughout the body. To undergo the hba1c test, people do not need to fast first. An hba1c test result below 5.7 percent indicates normal conditions. Meanwhile, the results of the hba1c test, which were between 5.7–6.4 percent, indicated prediabetes. An hba1c test result above 6.5 percent means the person has diabetes.